Book An Appointment



Regenerative Medicine Using Orthobiologics


Regenerative Medicine is a cutting-edge area of healthcare that focuses on healing injured tissue using the body's own cells and growth factors. Think of it as using your body's natural repair kit.

Orthobiologics is the use of natural substances from your own body to address injuries to muscles, tendons, and ligaments, or for ongoing issues like osteoarthritis. These treatments could mean less reliance on painkillers, quicker healing, better recovery, and sometimes, they can even be an alternative to having surgery.

The field of Regenerative Medicine and Orthobiologics is growing rapidly. We're excited to bring these powerful treatments to the Flathead Valley. 

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP)

 Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) injections are a form of regenerative medicine that leverages the body's natural healing processes to treat a variety of conditions. PRP therapy involves concentrating platelets from the patient's own blood and injecting them into injured tissues, stimulating the repair and regeneration of damaged cells. This innovative treatment has gained popularity across various medical fields due to its potential to accelerate recovery and alleviate pain without the need for surgery or long-term medication use.

History of PRP Injections

The concept of PRP therapy originated in the 1970s, with its initial applications in hematology. However, it wasn't until the 1990s that PRP began to be recognized for its potential in enhancing tissue repair and regeneration. The first widespread medical use of PRP was in maxillofacial surgery, where it was used to improve the healing of bone grafts. Since then, the applications of PRP have expanded significantly, driven by advancements in technology that have made the preparation of platelet-rich plasma more efficient and cost-effective.

Applications of PRP Injections

PRP injections are used in a wide range of medical disciplines, including:

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine: PRP is extensively used to treat musculoskeletal injuries such as tendonitis, ligament sprains, muscle strains, and joint arthritis. It is particularly popular among athletes for its ability to reduce downtime and accelerate the recovery of sports-related injuries.

  • Dermatology and Cosmetic Medicine: In the cosmetic field, PRP is applied for facial rejuvenation, improving skin texture, and promoting hair growth in patients with alopecia.

  • Dentistry: PRP has been used to enhance the healing of dental implants and in the management of periodontal disease.

  • Wound Healing: Its application extends to treating non-healing wounds, especially in patients with diabetes, where it promotes faster tissue regeneration.

  • Pain Management: PRP injections are also being explored as a treatment for chronic pain conditions, offering an alternative to traditional pain management strategies.

Mechanism of Action

PRP works by concentrating the platelets from the patient's blood to create a plasma with a higher-than-normal count of platelets, growth factors, and cytokines. When injected into the injured area, this platelet-rich plasma releases growth factors that recruit and increase the proliferation of reparative cells. This process not only accelerates the healing of tissues but also stimulates the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), improving blood supply and nutrient delivery to the affected area.


 Prolotherapy, also known as proliferative therapy, is a regenerative injection treatment used to repair and strengthen injured or weakened joints, ligaments, and tendons. The therapy works by stimulating the body's natural healing processes to lay down new tissue in the targeted area, thereby providing pain relief and enhancing function. Prolotherapy has been used for decades as an alternative to surgery and long-term pain medications for various musculoskeletal conditions.

History of Prolotherapy

The origins of prolotherapy date back to the 1930s when Dr. Earl Gedney, an osteopathic surgeon, used irritant solutions to treat ligamentous laxity. However, it was Dr. George S. Hackett, a general surgeon, who coined the term "prolotherapy" in the 1950s and significantly advanced the technique. Hackett's work laid the foundation for the use of prolotherapy in treating chronic musculoskeletal pain. Over the years, prolotherapy has evolved with the introduction of new solutions and techniques, expanding its applications and efficacy.

Applications of Prolotherapy

Prolotherapy is used to treat a wide range of musculoskeletal issues, including:

  • Joint Pain and Instability: Conditions such as knee osteoarthritis, shoulder instability, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction.
  • Ligament and Tendon Injuries: Including chronic sprains, tendinitis, and partial tears that have not adequately healed.
  • Back and Neck Pain: Particularly for pain arising from ligament laxity or minor disc problems.
  • Sports Injuries: To accelerate healing and strengthen weakened joints, ligaments, and tendons.

Prolozone Therapy

Prolozone therapy is a variation of prolotherapy that incorporates the use of ozone gas along with the traditional proliferative solutions. This combination is believed to enhance the healing process by improving oxygen utilization in the targeted area and stimulating the body's natural healing mechanisms. Prolozone therapy is particularly noted for its effectiveness in treating chronic pain conditions, degenerative joint diseases, and various types of injuries.

Mechanism of Action

The primary mechanism of prolotherapy involves the injection of a proliferative agent, such as a dextrose solution, into the affected ligaments, tendons, or joint capsules. This creates a mild, controlled inflammation that triggers the body's healing response, leading to the proliferation of new collagen and tissue repair. The new tissue strengthens the weakened area, providing pain relief and improved function.

Prolozone therapy adds the benefits of ozone's properties, including anti-inflammatory effects and enhanced oxygen delivery, to further stimulate healing and reduce pain.


Hyaluronic Acid (HA)

Hyaluronic Acid (HA) joint injections, also known as viscosupplementation, are a non-surgical treatment option for managing symptoms of joint disorders, primarily osteoarthritis (OA). These injections supplement the viscous properties of the synovial fluid in the joint, improving lubrication, reducing pain, and enhancing mobility. HA injections are most commonly used in the knee but can also be applied to other joints such as the hip, shoulder, and ankle.

History of Hyaluronic Acid Joint Injections

The concept of viscosupplementation was introduced in the 1970s, following the discovery of the lubricating and shock-absorbing properties of hyaluronic acid in the synovial fluid. The first HA joint injection was approved for use in the United States in the 1990s. Since then, the use of HA injections has expanded globally, supported by ongoing research and development that have improved the efficacy and safety of these treatments.

Applications of Hyaluronic Acid Joint Injections

HA joint injections are primarily used to treat osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and the synovial fluid's loss of viscoelastic properties. The applications include:

  • Knee Osteoarthritis: The most common application, where HA injections help to restore the natural properties of the synovial fluid, reducing pain and improving joint function.
  • Other Joint Osteoarthritis: Including the hip, shoulder, and ankle joints, where HA injections can provide symptomatic relief and delay the need for more invasive treatments.
  • Sports Injuries: HA injections are sometimes used to treat joint pain associated with overuse or injury, helping athletes to recover more quickly.

Mechanism of Action

Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring polysaccharide found in the synovial fluid, which lubricates and cushions the joints. In osteoarthritis, the concentration and molecular weight of HA in the synovial fluid decrease, leading to increased friction and wear on the cartilage. HA joint injections supplement the degraded synovial fluid with high molecular weight HA, which:

  • Improves Lubrication: Enhancing the fluid's ability to lubricate the joint, reducing friction and wear on the cartilage.
  • Absorbs Shocks: Helping to absorb shocks and distribute loads more evenly across the joint.
  • Reduces Pain: By improving joint function and possibly by direct anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Promotes Healing: Some evidence suggests that HA may stimulate the production of endogenous HA and other components of the synovial fluid, contributing to the healing of the joint tissues.


Perineural Therapy

Perineural Injection Therapy (PIT), also known as nerve hydrodissection or perineural injections, is a minimally invasive treatment aimed at relieving chronic pain by targeting specific nerves. This therapy involves the injection of a solution, typically a local anesthetic or dextrose, around peripheral nerves that are believed to be contributing to pain and dysfunction. PIT is gaining recognition for its potential to treat a variety of pain conditions without the need for surgery or reliance on opioid medications.

History of Perineural Injections

The concept of perineural injections has evolved over several decades, with its roots in the broader field of pain management and regional anesthesia. The modern approach to PIT, particularly using dextrose solutions, was popularized in the early 2000s by Dr. John Lyftogt, who identified the technique as a method for treating chronic pain syndromes by targeting the perineural tissues surrounding nerves. This approach was based on the understanding that many chronic pain conditions are neuropathic in nature and involve neurogenic inflammation.

Applications of Perineural Injections

Perineural Injection Therapy is used to treat a wide range of chronic pain conditions, including but not limited to:

  • Neuropathic Pain: Conditions such as diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).
  • Musculoskeletal Pain: Including tendinopathies, chronic overuse injuries, fibromyalgia, and pain associated with osteoarthritis.
  • Headaches and Migraines: Particularly those with a peripheral nerve component.
  • Sports Injuries: To reduce pain and inflammation and promote healing in athletes.
  • Post-surgical Pain Syndromes: Addressing pain that persists beyond the expected healing period after surgery.

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism by which perineural injections exert their therapeutic effects is multifaceted. When using dextrose as the injectate, the proposed mechanisms include:

  • Reduction of Neurogenic Inflammation: Dextrose may reduce the release of pro-inflammatory substances from nerves, thereby decreasing inflammation and pain.
  • Restoration of Nerve Function: By reducing inflammation and edema around the nerves, PIT may help to restore normal nerve function and conduction.
  • Promotion of Healing: Dextrose is hypothesized to stimulate the healing of injured perineural tissues, potentially through the recruitment of growth factors and other healing mediators.



At Apex Integrative Medicine, we provide the highest quality care to all our patients. Personally, my passion lies in empowering individuals to understand their bodies better.



At Apex Integrative Medicine, we provide the highest quality care to all our patients. Personally, my passion lies in empowering individuals to understand their bodies better.